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Configure wrangler.toml

Wrangler optionally uses a wrangler.toml configuration file to customize the development and publishing setup for a Worker. It is best practice to treat wrangler.toml as the source of truth for configuring a Worker.

The configuration for a Worker can become complex when you can define different environments, and each environment has its own configuration. There is a default (top-level) environment and named environments that provide environment-specific configuration.

This document serves as a reference for all the fields and acceptable values in wrangler.toml.

# The name of your Worker. Alphanumeric values and dashes only.
name = "worker"
# The entrypoint/path to the file that will be executed.
main = "./some-entrypoint"
# This is the ID of the account associated with your zone.
# You might have more than one account, so make sure to use
# the ID of the account associated with the zone/route you
# provide, if you provide one. It can also be specified through
# the CLOUDFLARE_ACCOUNT_ID environment variable.
account_id = ""
# Whether you use `<NAME>.<SUBDOMAIN>` to
# test and deploy your Worker.
# @default `true`
workers_dev = true
# Specifies the Usage Model for your Worker. There are two options -
# [bundled]( and
# [unbound](
# For newly created Workers, if the Usage Model is omitted
# it will be set to the [default Usage Model set on the account](
# For existing Workers, if the Usage Model is omitted, it will be
# set to the Usage Model configured in the Cloudflare dashboard for that Worker.
usage_model = "bundled" | "unbound"
# A list of routes that your Worker should be published to.
# Only one of `routes` or `route` is required.
# Only required when `workers_dev` is false, and there is no scheduled Worker (refer to `triggers`)
routes = ["routes"] | [{ pattern = "*", zone_id = "ZONE_ID" }] | [{ pattern = "*", zone_name = "ZONE_NAME" }]
# The same as routes, but only one.
route = "routes" | { pattern = "*", zone_id = "ZONE_ID" } | { pattern = "*", zone_name = "ZONE_NAME" }
# Stop wrangler from deleting vars that are not present in the wrangler.toml
# By default Wrangler will remove all vars and replace them with those found in the wrangler.toml configuration.
# If your development approach is to modify vars after deployment via the dashboard you may wish to enable this option.
keep_vars = true
# A map of environment variables to set when deploying your Worker.
# @default `{}`
# not inherited
KEY = "value"
# Lets you trigger Workers periodically, much like a cron job.
# More details:
# @default `{crons:[]}`
crons = ["1 * * * *"]
# These specify any Workers KV Namespaces you want to
# access from inside your Worker.
# To learn more about KV namespaces, refer to:
# @default `[]`
# @param {string} binding The binding name used to refer to the KV namespace
# @param {string} id The ID of the KV namespace at the edge
# @param {string} preview_id The ID of the KV namespace used during `wrangler dev`
# not inherited
binding = "<YOUR_NAMESPACE_0>"
id = "<YOUR_ID>"
preview_id = "<YOUR_PREVIEW_ID>"
binding = "<YOUR_NAMESPACE_1>"
id = "<YOUR_ID>"
preview_id = "<YOUR_PREVIEW_ID>"
# A list of Durable Objects that your Worker should be bound to.
# To learn more about Durable Objects, refer to:
# @default `{bindings:[]}`
# @param {string} name The name of the binding used to refer to the Durable Object
# @param {string} class_name The exported class name of the Durable Object
# @param {string} script_name The script where the Durable Object is defined (if it is external to this Worker)
# not inherited
bindings = [
{ name = "TEST_OBJECT", class_name = "", script_name = "" }
# A list of migrations that should be uploaded with your Worker.
# These define changes in your Durable Object declarations.
# More details:
# A unique identifier for this migration.
tag = ""
# The new Durable Objects being defined.
new_classes = [""]
# The Durable Objects being renamed.
renamed_classes = [{from = "DurableObjectExample", to = "UpdatedName" }]
# The Durable Objects being removed.
deleted_classes = ["DeprecatedClass"]
# Specifies R2 buckets that are bound to this Worker environment.
# @default `[]`
# @param {string} binding The binding name used to refer to the R2 bucket in the Worker.
# @param {string} bucket_name The name of this R2 bucket at the edge.
# @param {string} preview_bucket_name The preview name of this R2 used during `wrangler dev`
# not inherited
r2_buckets = [
{ binding = "TEST_BUCKET", bucket_name = "", preview_bucket_name = "" }
# Configures a custom build step to be run by Wrangler when building your Worker.
# Refer to the [custom builds documentation](
# for more details.
# @default {}
# The command used to build your Worker. On Linux and macOS, the command is executed in the `sh` shell and the `cmd` shell for Windows.
# The `&&` and `||` shell operators may be used.
command = "npm run build"
# The directory in which the command is executed.
cwd = "build_cwd"
# The directory to watch for changes while using `wrangler dev`, defaults to the current working directory
watch_dir = "build_watch_dir"
# An ordered list of rules that define which modules to import,
# and what type to import them as. You will need to specify rules
# to use `Text`, `Data`, and `CompiledWasm` modules, or when you wish to
# have a .js file be treated as an ESModule instead of CommonJS.
type = "Text"
globs = ["**/*.md"]
fallthrough = true
# A list of text files that your Worker should be bound to. This is
# the legacy way of binding to a text file. ES module Workers should
# do proper module imports.
TEXT = ""
# A list of wasm modules that your Worker should be bound to. This is
# the legacy way of binding to a wasm module. ES module Workers should
# do proper module imports.
MODULE = "module.wasm"
# A list of data files that your Worker should be bound to. This is
# the legacy way of binding to a data file. ES module Workers should
# do proper module imports.
DATA = ""
# Path to a custom tsconfig
tsconfig = "./tsconfig.json"
# Minify the script before uploading.
minify = false
# Add polyfills for node builtin modules and globals
node_compat = false
# Options to configure the development server that your Worker will use.
# IP address for the local dev server to listen on,
# @default `localhost`
ip = ""
# Port for the local dev server to listen on
# @default `8787`
port = 4321
# Protocol that local wrangler dev server listens to requests on.
# @default `http`
local_protocol = "http" | "https"
# Host to forward requests to, defaults to the host of the first route of project
host = # see route in Environments
# The definition of a Worker Site, a feature that lets you upload
# static assets with your Worker.
# Learn more here about sites:
# The directory containing your static assets.
# It must be a path relative to your `wrangler.toml` file.
# If there is a `site` field then it must contain this `bucket` field.
bucket = "./public"
# An exclusive list of `.gitignore`-style patterns that match file
# or directory names from your bucket location.
# Only matched items will be uploaded.
include = ["upload_dir"]
# Match files or directories in your bucket
# that should be excluded from uploads.
exclude = ["ignore_dir"]
# The `env` section defines overrides for the configuration for different environments.
# All environment fields can be specified at the top level of the config indicating the default environment settings.
# - Some fields are inherited and overridable in each environment.
# - But some are not inherited and must be explicitly specified in every environment, if they are specified at the top level.
# Refer to Environments:
# A date in the form yyyy-mm-dd, which will be used to determine
# which version of the Workers runtime is used.
compatibility_date = "2021-11-12"
# A list of flags that enable features from upcoming features of
# the Workers runtime, usually used together with `compatibility_flags`.
compatibility_flags = [
# A list of other Cloudflare services bound to this service.
# @default `[]`
# @param {string} binding The binding name used to refer to the bound service.
# @param {string} service The name of the service.
# @param {string} environment The environment of the service (For example, production, staging, etc) (optional).
services = [
{ binding = "TEST_BINDING", service = "", environment = "" }

​​ Proxy support

To enable proxy setup, use Wrangler with your VPN or HTTP proxy by configuring your computer’s environment variables. Note that when using Wrangler in corporate environments that require the use of a VPN or HTTP proxy, you may come across a UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY error. This error can be fixed with the use of environment variables.

Wrangler supports the following environment variable names:

  • https_proxy
  • http_proxy

For example, to configure this on macOS add HTTP_PROXY=http://<YOUR_PROXY_HOST>:<YOUR_PROXY_PORT> before your wrangler commands, as shown below:

HTTP_PROXY=http://localhost:8080 wrangler dev

If your IT team has configured your computer’s proxy settings, be aware that the first non-empty environment variable in this list will be used when Wrangler makes outgoing requests.

For example, if both https_proxy and http_proxy are set, Wrangler will only use https_proxy for outgoing requests.

​​ Local environments

Wrangler allows you to set variable or secret keys locally without the need to set the [vars] bindings in your wrangler.toml file. The variables and secrets keys you set only get used when you run wrangler dev.

You need to create a file called .dev.vars next to the wrangler.toml file (or in the current working directory if there is no wrangler.toml.

Any values in this file, formatted like a dotenv file, will add to or override the [vars] bindings provided in the wrangler.toml.

Below is an example of .dev.vars file:

SECRET_KEY = "value"

​​ Source of truth

It is a recommended best practice to treat wrangler.toml as a source of truth for your Worker configuration, and avoid making changes via the Cloudflare dashboard. This allows you to treat wrangler.toml as a form of Infrastructure as Code.

If you change your environment variables in the Cloudflare dashboard, Wrangler will override them the next time you deploy. If you want to disable this behavior, add keep_vars = true to your wrangler.toml.

Note that Wrangler will not delete your secrets (encrypted environment variables) unless you run wrangler secret delete <key>.