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Wrangler commands

Wrangler offers a number of commands to manage your Cloudflare Workers.

  • docs - Open this page in your default browser.
  • init - Create a skeleton Wrangler project, including the wrangler.toml file.
  • generate - Create a Wrangler project using an existing Workers template.
  • d1 - Interact with D1.
  • vectorize - Interact with Vectorize indexes.
  • hyperdrive - Manage your Hyperdrives.
  • deploy - Deploy your Worker to Cloudflare.
  • dev - Start a local server for developing your Worker.
  • publish - Publish your Worker to Cloudflare.
  • delete - Delete your Worker from Cloudflare.
  • kv:namespace - Manage Workers KV namespaces.
  • kv:key - Manage key-value pairs within a Workers KV namespace.
  • kv:bulk - Manage multiple key-value pairs within a Workers KV namespace in batches.
  • r2 bucket - Manage Workers R2 buckets.
  • r2 object - Manage Workers R2 objects.
  • secret - Manage the secret variables for a Worker.
  • secret:bulk - Manage multiple secret variables for a Worker.
  • tail - Start a session to livestream logs from a deployed Worker.
  • pages - Configure Cloudflare Pages.
  • queues - Configure Workers Queues.
  • login - Authorize Wrangler with your Cloudflare account using OAuth.
  • logout - Remove Wrangler’s authorization for accessing your account.
  • whoami - Retrieve your user information and test your authentication configuration.
  • deployments - Retrieve details for recent deployments.
  • rollback - Rollback to a recent deployment.
  • dispatch-namespace - Interact with a dispatch namespace.
  • mtls-certificate - Manage certificates used for mTLS connections.
  • types - Generate types from bindings and module rules in configuration.

​​ Background

This page provides a reference for Wrangler commands.


wrangler <COMMAND> <SUBCOMMAND> [PARAMETERS] [OPTIONS]

Since Cloudflare recommends installing Wrangler locally in your project(rather than globally), the way to run Wrangler will depend on your specific setup and package manager.


$ npx wrangler <COMMAND> <SUBCOMMAND> [PARAMETERS] [OPTIONS]

$ yarn wrangler <COMMAND> <SUBCOMMAND> [PARAMETERS] [OPTIONS]

$ pnpm wrangler <COMMAND> <SUBCOMMAND> [PARAMETERS] [OPTIONS]

You can add Wrangler commands that you use often as scripts in your project’s package.json file:


{
...
"scripts": {
"deploy": "wrangler deploy",
"dev": "wrangler dev"
}
...
}

You can then run them using your package manager of choice:


$ npm run deploy

$ yarn run deploy

$ pnpm run deploy

​​ docs

Open the Cloudflare developer documentation in your default browser.


wrangler docs [<COMMAND>]
  • COMMAND string optional
    • The Wrangler command you want to learn more about. This opens your default browser to the section of the documentation that describes the command.

​​ init

Create a skeleton Wrangler project, including the wrangler.toml file.


wrangler init [<NAME>] [OPTIONS]
  • NAME string optional (default: name of working directory)
    • The name of the Workers project. This is both the directory name and name property in the generated wrangler.toml configuration file.
  • --yes boolean optional
    • Answer yes to any prompts for new projects.
  • --from-dash string optional
    • Fetch a Worker initialized from the dashboard. This is done by passing the flag and the Worker name. wrangler init --from-dash <WORKER_NAME>.
    • The --from-dash command will not automatically sync changes made to the dashboard after the command is used. Therefore, it is recommended that you continue using the CLI.

​​ generate

Create a Wrangler project using an existing Workers template.


wrangler generate [<NAME>] [TEMPLATE]

​​ d1

Interact with Cloudflare’s D1 service.

​​ create

Creates a new D1 database, and provides the binding and UUID that you will put in your wrangler.toml file.


wrangler d1 create <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the new D1 database.
  • --experimental-backend boolean optional
    • Use the new experimental storage backend for this database.
  • --location string optional
    • Provide an optional location hint for your database leader.
    • Available options include weur (Western Europe), eeur (Eastern Europe), apac (Asia Pacific), wnam (Western North America), and enam (Eastern North America).

​​ list

List all D1 databases in your account.


wrangler d1 list

​​ delete

Delete a D1 database.


wrangler d1 delete <DATABASE_NAME>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to delete.

​​ execute

Execute a query on a D1 database.


wrangler d1 execute <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to execute a query on.
  • --command string optional
    • The SQL query you wish to execute.
  • --file string optional
    • Path to the SQL file you wish to execute.
  • Note that you must provide either --command or --file for this command to run successfully.

​​ time-travel restore

Restore a database to a specific point-in-time using Time Travel.


wrangler d1 time-travel restore <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to execute a query on.
  • --bookmark string optional
    • A D1 bookmark representing the state of a database at a specific point in time.
  • --timestamp string optional
    • A UNIX timestamp or JavaScript date-time string within the last 30 days.

​​ time-travel info

Inspect the current state of a database for a specific point-in-time using Time Travel.


wrangler d1 time-travel info <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to execute a query on.
  • --timestamp string optional
    • A UNIX timestamp or JavaScript date-time string within the last 30 days.

​​ backup create

Initiate a D1 backup.


wrangler d1 backup create <DATABASE_NAME>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to backup.

​​ backup list

List all available backups.


wrangler d1 backup list <DATABASE_NAME>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to list the backups of.

​​ backup restore

Restore a backup into a D1 database.


wrangler d1 backup restore <DATABASE_NAME> <BACKUP_ID>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database to restore the backup into.
  • BACKUP_ID string required
    • The ID of the backup you wish to restore.

​​ backup download

Download existing data to your local machine.


wrangler d1 backup download <DATABASE_NAME> <BACKUP_ID>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database you wish to download the backup of.
  • BACKUP_ID string required
    • The ID of the backup you wish to download.

​​ migrations create

Create a new migration.

This will generate a new versioned file inside the migrations folder. Name your migration file as a description of your change. This will make it easier for you to find your migration in the migrations folder. An example filename looks like:

0000_create_user_table.sql

The filename will include a version number and the migration name you specify below.


wrangler d1 migrations create <DATABASE_NAME> <MIGRATION_NAME>
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database you wish to create a migration for.
  • MIGRATION_NAME string required
    • A descriptive name for the migration you wish to create.

​​ migrations list

View a list of unapplied migration files.


wrangler d1 migrations list <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database you wish to list unapplied migrations for.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Show the list of unapplied migration files on your locally persisted D1 database.

​​ migrations apply

Apply any unapplied migrations.

This command will prompt you to confirm the migrations you are about to apply. Confirm that you would like to proceed. After, a backup will be captured.

The progress of each migration will be printed in the console.

When running the apply command in a CI/CD environment or another non-interactive command line, the confirmation step will be skipped, but the backup will still be captured.

If applying a migration results in an error, this migration will be rolled back, and the previous successful migration will remain applied.


wrangler d1 migrations apply <DATABASE_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • DATABASE_NAME string required
    • The name of the D1 database you wish to apply your migrations on.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Execute any unapplied migrations on your locally persisted D1 database.

​​ hyperdrive

Manage Hyperdrive database configurations.

​​ create

Create a new Hyperdrive configuration.


wrangler hyperdrive create <ID> [OPTIONS]
  • ID string required
    • The ID of the Hyperdrive configuration to create.
  • --connection-string string optional
    • The database connection string in the form postgres://user:password@hostname:port/database.

​​ update

Update an existing Hyperdrive configuration.


wrangler hyperdrive update <ID> [OPTIONS]
  • ID string required
    • The ID of the Hyperdrive configuration to update.
  • --origin-host string optional
    • The new database hostname or IP address Hyperdrive should connect to.
  • --origin-port string optional
    • The new database port to connect to.
  • --database string optional
    • The new database (name) to connect to. For example, Postgres or defaultdb.
  • --origin-user string optional
    • The new username used to authenticate to the database.
  • --origin-password string optional
    • The new password used to authenticate to the database.

​​ list

List all Hyperdrive configurations.


wrangler hyperdrive list

​​ delete

Delete an existing Hyperdrive configuration.


wrangler hyperdrive delete <ID>
  • ID string required
    • The name of the Hyperdrive configuration to delete.

​​ get

Get an existing Hyperdrive configuration.


wrangler hyperdrive get <ID>
  • ID string required
    • The name of the Hyperdrive configuration to get.

​​ vectorize

Interact with a Vectorize vector database.

​​ create

Creates a new vector index, and provides the binding and name that you will put in your wrangler.toml file.


wrangler vectorize create <INDEX_NAME> [--dimensions=<NUM_DIMENSIONS>] [--metric=<DISTANCE_METRIC>]
  • INDEX_NAME string required
    • The name of the new index to create. Cannot be changed.
  • --dimensions number optional
    • The vector dimension width to configure the index for. Cannot be changed after creation.
  • --metric string optional
    • The distance metric to use for calculating vector distance. Must be one of cosine, euclidean, or dot-product.

​​ get

Get details about an individual index, including its configuration.


wrangler vectorize get <INDEX_NAME>
  • INDEX_NAME string required
    • The name of the index to fetch details for.

​​ list

List all Vectorize indexes in your account, including the configured dimensions and distance metric.


wrangler vectorize list

​​ delete

Delete a Vectorize index.


wrangler vectorize delete <INDEX_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • INDEX_NAME string required
    • The name of the Vectorize index to delete.
  • --force boolean optional
    • Skip confirmation when deleting the index (Note: This is not a recoverable operation).

​​ insert

Insert vectors into an index.


wrangler vectorize insert <INDEX_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • INDEX_NAME string required
    • The name of the Vectorize index to delete.
  • --file string required
    • A file containing the vectors to insert in newline-delimited JSON (JSON) format.
  • --batch-size number optional
    • The number of vectors to insert at a time (default: 5000).

​​ dev

Start a local server for developing your Worker.


wrangler dev [<SCRIPT>] [OPTIONS]
  • SCRIPT string
    • The path to an entry point for your Worker. Only required if your wrangler.toml does not include a main key (for example, main = "index.js").
  • --name string optional
    • Name of the Worker.
  • --no-bundle boolean (default: false) optional
    • Skip Wrangler’s build steps. Particularly useful when using custom builds. Refer to Bundling for more information.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --compatibility-date string optional
    • A date in the form yyyy-mm-dd, which will be used to determine which version of the Workers runtime is used.
  • --compatibility-flags, --compatibility-flag string[] optional
    • Flags to use for compatibility checks.
  • --latest boolean (default: true) optional
    • Use the latest version of the Workers runtime.
  • --ip string optional
    • IP address to listen on, defaults to * (all interfaces).
  • --port number optional
    • Port to listen on.
  • --inspector-port number optional
    • Port for devtools to connect to.
  • --routes, --route string[] optional
    • Routes to upload.
    • For example: --route example.com/*.
  • --host string optional
    • Host to forward requests to, defaults to the zone of project.
  • --local-protocol “http”|“https” (default: http) optional
    • Protocol to listen to requests on.
  • --local-upstream string optional
    • Host to act as origin in local mode, defaults to dev.host or route.
  • --assets string optional
    • Root folder of static assets to be served.
    • Use in combination with --name and --latest for basic static file hosting. For example: wrangler dev --name personal_blog --assets dist/ --latest.
  • --site string optional
    • Root folder of static assets for Workers Sites.
  • --site-include string[] optional
    • Array of .gitignore-style patterns that match file or directory names from the sites directory. Only matched items will be uploaded.
  • --site-exclude string[] optional
    • Array of .gitignore-style patterns that match file or directory names from the sites directory. Matched items will not be uploaded.
  • --upstream-protocol “http”|“https” (default: https) optional
    • Protocol to forward requests to host on.
  • --var key:value[] optional
    • Array of key:value pairs to inject as variables into your code. The value will always be passed as a string to your Worker.
    • For example, --var git_hash:$(git rev-parse HEAD) test:123 makes the git_hash and test variables available in your Worker’s env.
    • This flag is an alternative to defining vars in your wrangler.toml. If defined in both places, this flag’s values will be used.
  • --define key:value[] optional
    • Array of key:value pairs to replace global identifiers in your code.
    • For example, --define GIT_HASH:$(git rev-parse HEAD) will replace all uses of GIT_HASH with the actual value at build time.
    • This flag is an alternative to defining define in your wrangler.toml. If defined in both places, this flag’s values will be used.
  • --tsconfig string optional
    • Path to a custom tsconfig.json file.
  • --minify boolean optional
    • Minify the Worker.
  • --node-compat boolean optional
    • Enable Node.js compatibility.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory to use for local persistence.
  • --remote boolean (default: false) optional
    • Develop against remote resources and data stored on Cloudflare’s network.
  • --test-scheduled boolean (default: false) optional
    • Exposes a /__scheduled fetch route which will trigger a scheduled event (Cron Trigger) for testing during development. To simulate different cron patterns, a cron query parameter can be passed in: /__scheduled?cron=*+*+*+*+*.
  • --log-level “debug”|“info”|“log”|“warn”|“error”|“none” (default: log) optional
    • Specify Wrangler’s logging level.

wrangler dev is a way to locally test your Worker while developing. With wrangler dev running, send HTTP requests to localhost:8787 and your Worker should execute as expected. You will also see console.log messages and exceptions appearing in your terminal.


​​ deploy

Deploy your Worker to Cloudflare.


wrangler deploy [<SCRIPT>] [OPTIONS]
  • SCRIPT string
    • The path to an entry point for your Worker. The path to an entry point for your Worker. Only required if your wrangler.toml does not include a main key (for example, main = "index.js").
  • --name string optional
    • Name of the Worker.
  • --no-bundle boolean (default: false) optional
    • Skip Wrangler’s build steps. Particularly useful when using custom builds. Refer to Bundling for more information.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --outdir string optional
    • Path to directory where Wrangler will write the bundled Worker files.
  • --compatibility-date string optional
    • A date in the form yyyy-mm-dd, which will be used to determine which version of the Workers runtime is used.
  • --compatibility-flags, --compatibility-flag string[] optional
    • Flags to use for compatibility checks.
  • --latest boolean (default: true) optional
    • Use the latest version of the Workers runtime.
  • --assets string optional
    • Root folder of static assets to be served.
    • Use in combination with --name and --latest for basic static file hosting. For example: npx wrangler deploy --name personal_blog --assets dist/ --latest.
  • --site string optional
    • Root folder of static assets for Workers Sites.
  • --site-include string[] optional
    • Array of .gitignore-style patterns that match file or directory names from the sites directory. Only matched items will be uploaded.
  • --site-exclude string[] optional
    • Array of .gitignore-style patterns that match file or directory names from the sites directory. Matched items will not be uploaded.
  • --var key:value[] optional
    • Array of key:value pairs to inject as variables into your code. The value will always be passed as a string to your Worker.
    • For example, --var git_hash:$(git rev-parse HEAD) test:123 makes the git_hash and test variables available in your Worker’s env.
    • This flag is an alternative to defining vars in your wrangler.toml. If defined in both places, this flag’s values will be used.
  • --define key:value[] optional
    • Array of key:value pairs to replace global identifiers in your code.
    • For example, --define GIT_HASH:$(git rev-parse HEAD) will replace all uses of GIT_HASH with the actual value at build time.
    • This flag is an alternative to defining define in your wrangler.toml. If defined in both places, this flag’s values will be used.
  • --triggers, --schedule, --schedules string[] optional
  • --routes, --route string[] optional
    • Routes where this Worker will be deployed.
    • For example: --route example.com/*.
  • --tsconfig string optional
    • Path to a custom tsconfig.json file.
  • --minify boolean optional
    • Minify the bundled Worker before deploying.
  • --node-compat boolean optional
    • Enable node.js compatibility.
  • --dry-run boolean (default: false) optional
    • Compile a project without actually deploying to live servers. Combined with --outdir, this is also useful for testing the output of npx wrangler deploy. It also gives developers a chance to upload our generated sourcemap to a service like Sentry, so that errors from the Worker can be mapped against source code, but before the service goes live.
  • --keep-vars boolean (default: false) optional
    • It is recommended best practice to treat your Wrangler developer environment as a source of truth for your Worker configuration, and avoid making changes via the Cloudflare dashboard.
    • If you change your environment variables or bindings in the Cloudflare dashboard, Wrangler will override them the next time you deploy. If you want to disable this behaviour set keep-vars to true.

​​ publish

Publish your Worker to Cloudflare.


wrangler publish [OPTIONS]

​​ delete

Delete your Worker and all associated Cloudflare developer platform resources.


wrangler delete [<SCRIPT>] [OPTIONS]
  • SCRIPT string
    • The path to an entry point for your Worker. The path to an entry point for your Worker. Only required if your wrangler.toml does not include a main key (for example, main = "index.js").
  • --name string optional
    • Name of the Worker.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --dry-run boolean (default: false) optional
    • Do not actually delete the Worker. This is useful for testing the output of wrangler delete.

​​ kv:namespace

Manage Workers KV namespaces.

​​ create

Create a new namespace.


wrangler kv:namespace create <NAMESPACE> [OPTIONS]
  • NAMESPACE string required
    • The name of the new namespace.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace (the preview_id value).

The following is an example of using the create command to create a KV namespace called MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:namespace create "MY_KV"
🌀 Creating namespace with title "worker-MY_KV"
✨ Success!
Add the following to your configuration file in your kv_namespaces array:
kv_namespaces = [
{ binding = "MY_KV", id = "e29b263ab50e42ce9b637fa8370175e8" }
]

The following is an example of using the create command to create a preview KV namespace called MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:namespace create "MY_KV" --preview
🌀 Creating namespace with title "my-site-MY_KV_preview"
✨ Success!
Add the following to your configuration file in your kv_namespaces array:
kv_namespaces = [
{ binding = "MY_KV", preview_id = "15137f8edf6c09742227e99b08aaf273" }
]

​​ list

List all KV namespaces associated with the current account ID.


wrangler kv:namespace list

The following is an example that passes the Wrangler command through the jq command:


$ npx wrangler kv:namespace list | jq "."
[
{
"id": "06779da6940b431db6e566b4846d64db",
"title": "TEST_NAMESPACE"
},
{
"id": "32ac1b3c2ed34ed3b397268817dea9ea",
"title": "STATIC_CONTENT"
}
]

​​ delete

Delete a given namespace.


wrangler kv:namespace delete {--bindings=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.

The following is an example of deleting a KV namespace called MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:namespace delete --binding=MY_KV
Are you sure you want to delete namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791? [y/n]
yes
Deleting namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791
Deleted namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791

The following is an example of deleting a preview KV namespace called MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:namespace delete --binding=MY_KV --preview
Are you sure you want to delete namespace 15137f8edf6c09742227e99b08aaf273? [y/n]
yes
Deleting namespace 15137f8edf6c09742227e99b08aaf273
Deleted namespace 15137f8edf6c09742227e99b08aaf273

​​ kv:key

Manage key-value pairs within a Workers KV namespace.

​​ put

Write a single key-value pair to a particular namespace.


wrangler kv:key put <KEY> {<VALUE>|--path=<PATH>} {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • KEY string required
    • The key to write to.
  • VALUE string optional
    • The value to write.
  • --path optional
    • When defined, the value is loaded from the file at --path rather than reading it from the VALUE argument. This is ideal for security-sensitive operations because it avoids saving keys and values into your terminal history.
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --ttl number optional
    • The lifetime (in number of seconds) that the key-value pair should exist before expiring. Must be at least 60 seconds. This option takes precedence over the expiration option.
  • --expiration number optional
    • The timestamp, in UNIX seconds, indicating when the key-value pair should expire.
  • --metadata string optional
    • Any (escaped) JSON serialized arbitrary object to a maximum of 1024 bytes.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

The following is an example that puts a key-value into the namespace with binding name of MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:key put --binding=MY_KV "my-key" "some-value"
Writing the value "some-value" to key "my-key" on namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791.

The following is an example that puts a key-value into the preview namespace with binding name of MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:key put --binding=MY_KV --preview "my-key" "some-value"
Writing the value "some-value" to key "my-key" on namespace 15137f8edf6c09742227e99b08aaf273.

The following is an example that puts a key-value into a namespace, with a time-to-live value of 10000 seconds.


$ npx wrangler kv:key put --binding=MY_KV "my-key" "some-value" --ttl=10000
Writing the value "some-value" to key "my-key" on namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791.

The following is an example that puts a key-value into a namespace, where the value is read from the value.txt file.


$ npx wrangler kv:key put --binding=MY_KV "my-key" --path=value.txt
Writing the contents of value.txt to the key "my-key" on namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791.

​​ list

Output a list of all keys in a given namespace.


wrangler kv:key list {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --prefix string optional
    • Only list keys that begin with the given prefix.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

Below is an example that passes the Wrangler command through the jq command:


$ npx wrangler kv:key list --binding=MY_KV --prefix="public" | jq "."
[
{
"name": "public_key"
},
{
"name": "public_key_with_expiration",
"expiration": "2019-09-10T23:18:58Z"
}
]

​​ get

Read a single value by key from the given namespace.


wrangler kv:key get <KEY> {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • KEY string required
    • The key value to get.
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to get from.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to get from.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --text boolean optional
    • Decode the returned value as a UTF-8 string.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

The following is an example that gets the value of the "my-key" key from the KV namespace with binding name MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:key get --binding=MY_KV "my-key"
value

​​ delete

Remove a single key value pair from the given namespace.


wrangler kv:key delete <KEY> {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • KEY string required
    • The key value to get.
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

The following is an example that deletes the key-value pair with key "my-key" from the KV namespace with binding name MY_KV.


$ npx wrangler kv:key delete --binding=MY_KV "my-key"
Deleting the key "my-key" on namespace f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791.

​​ kv:bulk

Manage multiple key-value pairs within a Workers KV namespace in batches.

​​ put

Write a JSON file containing an array of key-value pairs to the given namespace.


wrangler kv:bulk put <FILENAME> {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • FILENAME string required
    • The JSON file containing an array of key-value pairs to write to the namespace.
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

This command takes a JSON file as an argument with a list of key-value pairs to upload. An example of JSON input:


[
{
"key": "test_key",
"value": "test_value",
"expiration_ttl": 3600
}
]

KV namespace values can only store strings. In order to save complex a value, stringify it to JSON:


[
{
"key": "test_key",
"value": "{\"name\": \"test_value\"}",
"expiration_ttl": 3600
}
]

Refer to the full schema for key-value entries uploaded via the bulk API:

  • key string required
    • The key’s name. The name may be 512 bytes maximum. All printable, non-whitespace characters are valid.
  • value string required
    • The UTF-8 encoded string to be stored, up to 25 MB in length.
  • metadata object optional
    • Any arbitrary object (must serialize to JSON) to a maximum of 1024 bytes.
  • expiration number optional
    • The time, measured in number of seconds since the UNIX epoch, at which the key should expire.
  • expiration_ttl number optional
    • The number of seconds the document should exist before expiring. Must be at least 60 seconds.
  • base64 boolean optional
    • When true, the server will decode the value as base64 before storing it. This is useful for writing values that would otherwise be invalid JSON strings, such as images. Defaults to false.

The following is an example of writing all the key-value pairs found in the allthethingsupload.json file.


$ npx wrangler kv:bulk put --binding=MY_KV allthethingsupload.json
Success!

​​ delete

Delete all keys read from a JSON file within a given namespace.


wrangler kv:bulk delete <FILENAME> {--binding=<BINDING>|--namespace-id=<NAMESPACE_ID>} [OPTIONS]
  • FILENAME string required
    • The JSON file containing an array of keys to delete from the namespace.
  • --binding string
    • The binding name of the namespace, as stored in the wrangler.toml file, to delete.
  • --namespace-id string
    • The ID of the namespace to delete.
  • --env string optional
    • Perform on a specific environment.
  • --preview boolean optional
    • Interact with a preview namespace instead of production.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

This command takes a JSON file as an argument containing an array of keys to delete. The following is an example of the JSON input:


["test_key_1", "test_key_2"]

The following is an example of deleting all the keys found in the allthethingsdelete.json file.


$ npx wrangler kv:bulk delete --binding=MY_KV allthethingsdelete.json
? Are you sure you want to delete all keys in allthethingsdelete.json from kv-namespace with id "f7b02e7fc70443149ac906dd81ec1791"? › (Y/n)
Success!

​​ r2 bucket

Interact with buckets in an R2 store.

​​ create

Create a new R2 bucket.


wrangler r2 bucket create <NAME>
  • NAME string required
    • The name of the new R2 bucket.

​​ delete

Delete an R2 bucket.


wrangler r2 bucket delete <NAME>
  • NAME string required
    • The name of the R2 bucket to delete.

​​ list

List R2 bucket in the current account.


wrangler r2 bucket list

​​ r2 object

Interact with R2 objects.

​​ get

Fetch an object from an R2 bucket.


wrangler r2 object get <OBJECT_PATH> [OPTIONS]
  • OBJECT_PATH string required
    • The source object path in the form of {bucket}/{key}.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

​​ put

Create an object in an R2 bucket.


wrangler r2 object put <OBJECT_PATH> [OPTIONS]
  • OBJECT_PATH string required
    • The destination object path in the form of {bucket}/{key}.
  • --file string optional
    • The path of the file to upload. Note you must provide either --file or --pipe.
  • --pipe boolean optional
    • Enables the file to be piped in, rather than specified with the --file option. Note you must provide either --file or --pipe.
  • --content-type string optional
    • A standard MIME type describing the format of the object data.
  • --content-disposition string optional
    • Specifies presentational information for the object.
  • --content-encoding string optional
    • Specifies what content encodings have been applied to the object and thus what decoding mechanisms must be applied to obtain the media-type referenced by the Content-Type header field.
  • --content-language string optional
    • The language the content is in.
  • --cache-control string optional
    • Specifies caching behavior along the request/reply chain.
  • --expires string optional
    • The date and time at which the object is no longer cacheable.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

​​ delete

Delete an object in an R2 bucket.


wrangler r2 object delete <OBJECT_PATH> [OPTIONS]
  • OBJECT_PATH string required
    • The destination object path in the form of {bucket}/{key}.
  • --local boolean optional
    • Interact with locally persisted data.
  • --persist-to string optional
    • Specify directory for locally persisted data.

​​ secret

Manage the secret variables for a Worker.

​​ put

Create or replace a secret for a Worker.


wrangler secret put <KEY> [OPTIONS]
  • KEY string required

    • The variable name for this secret to be accessed in the Worker.
  • --name string optional

    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.
  • --env string optional

    • Perform on a specific environment.

When running this command, you will be prompted to input the secret’s value:


$ npx wrangler secret put FOO
? Enter a secret value: › ***
🌀 Creating the secret for script worker-app
✨ Success! Uploaded secret FOO

The put command can also receive piped input. For example:


$ echo "-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----\nM...==\n-----END PRIVATE KEY-----\n" | wrangler secret put PRIVATE_KEY

​​ delete

Delete a secret for a Worker.


wrangler secret delete <KEY> [OPTIONS]
  • KEY string required

    • The variable name for this secret to be accessed in the Worker.
  • --name string optional

    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.
  • --env string optional

    • Perform on a specific environment.

​​ list

List the names of all the secrets for a Worker.


wrangler secret list [OPTIONS]
  • --name string optional

    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.
  • --env string optional

    • Perform on a specific environment

The following is an example of listing the secrets for the current Worker.


$ npx wrangler secret list
[
{
"name": "FOO",
"type": "secret_text"
}
]

​​ secret:bulk

Upload multiple secrets for a Worker at once.


wrangler secret:bulk [<FILENAME>] [OPTIONS]
  • FILENAME string optional

    • The JSON file containing key-value pairs to upload as secrets, in the form {"SECRET_NAME": "secret value", ...}.
    • If omitted, Wrangler expects to receive input from stdin rather than a file.
  • --name string optional

    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.
  • --env string optional

    • Perform on a specific environment.

The following is an example of uploading secrets from a JSON file redirected to stdin. When complete, the output summary will show the number of secrets uploaded and the number of secrets that failed to upload.

secrets.json
{
"secret-name-1": "secret-value-1",
"secret-name-2": "secret-value-2"
}

$ npx wrangler secret:bulk < secrets.json
🌀 Creating the secrets for the Worker "script-name"
✨ Successfully created secret for key: secret-name-1
...
🚨 Error uploading secret for key: secret-name-1
✨ Successfully created secret for key: secret-name-2
Finished processing secrets JSON file:
✨ 1 secrets successfully uploaded
🚨 1 secrets failed to upload

​​ tail

Start a session to livestream logs from a deployed Worker.


wrangler tail <WORKER> [OPTIONS]
  • WORKER string required
    • The name of your Worker or the route the Worker is running on.
  • --format “json”|“pretty” optional
    • The format of the log entries.
  • --status “ok”|“error”|“canceled” optional
    • Filter by invocation status.
  • --header string optional
    • Filter by HTTP header.
  • --method string optional
    • Filter by HTTP method.
  • --sampling-rate number optional
    • Add a fraction of requests to log sampling rate (between 0 and 1).
  • --search string optional
    • Filter by a text match in console.log messages.
  • --ip (string|“self”)[] optional
    • Filter by the IP address the request originates from. Use "self" to show only messages from your own IP.

After starting wrangler tail, you will receive a live feed of console and exception logs for each request your Worker receives.

If your Worker has a high volume of traffic, the tail might enter sampling mode. This will cause some of your messages to be dropped and a warning to appear in your tail logs. To prevent messages from being dropped, add the options listed above to filter the volume of tail messages.

If sampling persists after using options to filter messages, consider using instant logs.


​​ pages

Configure Cloudflare Pages.

​​ dev

Develop your full stack Pages application locally.


wrangler pages dev [<DIRECTORY>] [OPTIONS] [-- <COMMAND...>]
  • DIRECTORY string optional
    • The directory of static assets to serve.
  • COMMAND... string optional
    • The proxy command(s) to run.
  • --local boolean optional (default: true)
    • Run on your local machine.
  • --port number optional (default: 8788)
    • The port to listen on (serve from).
  • --proxy number optional
    • The port to proxy (where the static assets are served).
  • --script-path string optional (default: “_worker.js”)
    • The location of the single Worker file if not using functions.
  • --binding string[] optional
    • Bind an environment variable or secret (for example, --binding <VARIABLE_NAME>=<VALUE>).
  • --kv string[] optional
    • Binding name of KV namespace to bind (for example, --kv <BINDING_NAME>).
  • --r2 string[] optional
    • Binding name of R2 bucket to bind (for example, --r2 <BINDING_NAME>).
  • --d1 string[] optional
    • Binding name of D1 database to bind (for example, --d1 <BINDING_NAME>).
  • --do string[] optional
    • Binding name of Durable Object to bind (for example, --do <BINDING_NAME>=<CLASS>).
  • --live-reload boolean optional (default: false)
    • Auto reload HTML pages when change is detected.
  • --compatibility-flag string[] optional
    • Runtime compatibility flags to apply.
  • --compatibility-date string optional
    • Runtime compatibility date to apply.

​​ project list

List your Pages projects.


wrangler pages project list

​​ project create

Create a new Cloudflare Pages project.


wrangler pages project create <PROJECT_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • PROJECT_NAME string required
    • The name of your Pages project.
  • --production-branch string optional
    • The name of the production branch of your project.

​​ project delete

Delete a Cloudflare Pages project.


wrangler pages project delete <PROJECT_NAME> [OPTIONS]
  • PROJECT_NAME string required
    • The name of the Pages project to delete.
  • --yes boolean optional
    • Answer "yes" to confirmation prompt.

​​ deployment list

List deployments in your Cloudflare Pages project.


wrangler pages deployment list [--project-name <PROJECT_NAME>]
  • --project-name string optional
    • The name of the project you would like to list deployments for.

​​ deployment tail

Start a session to livestream logs from your deployed Pages Functions.


wrangler pages deployment tail [<DEPLOYMENT>] [OPTIONS]
  • DEPLOYMENT string optional
    • ID or URL of the deployment to tail. Specify by environment if deployment ID is unknown.
  • --project-name string optional
    • The name of the project you would like to tail.
  • --environment “production”|“preview” optional
    • When not providing a specific deployment ID, specifying environment will grab the latest production or preview deployment.
  • --format “json”|“pretty” optional
    • The format of the log entries.
  • --status “ok”|“error”|“canceled” optional
    • Filter by invocation status.
  • --header string optional
    • Filter by HTTP header.
  • --method string optional
    • Filter by HTTP method.
  • --sampling-rate number optional
    • Add a percentage of requests to log sampling rate.
  • --search string optional
    • Filter by a text match in console.log messages.
  • --ip (string|“self”)[] optional
    • Filter by the IP address the request originates from. Use "self" to show only messages from your own IP.

After starting wrangler pages deployment tail, you will receive a live stream of console and exception logs for each request your Functions receive.

​​ deploy

Deploy a directory of static assets as a Pages deployment.


wrangler pages deploy <DIRECTORY> [OPTIONS]
  • DIRECTORY string required
    • The directory of static files to upload.
  • --project-name string optional
    • The name of the project you want to deploy to.
  • --branch string optional
    • The name of the branch you want to deploy to.
  • --commit-hash string optional
    • The SHA to attach to this deployment.
  • --commit-message string optional
    • The commit message to attach to this deployment.
  • --commit-dirty boolean optional
    • Whether or not the workspace should be considered dirty for this deployment.

​​ publish

Publish a directory of static assets as a Pages deployment.


wrangler pages publish [<DIRECTORY>] [OPTIONS]

​​ queues

Manage your Workers Queues configurations.

​​ create

Create a new Queue.


wrangler queues create <name> [OPTIONS]
  • name string required
    • The name of the queue to create.

​​ delete

Delete an existing queue.


wrangler queues delete <name> [OPTIONS]
  • name string required
    • The name of the queue to delete.

​​ list

List all queues in the current account.


wrangler queues list [OPTIONS]

​​ consumer

Manage queue consumer configurations.

​​ consumer add <script-name>

Add a Worker script as a queue consumer.


wrangler queues consumer add <queue-name> <script-name> [OPTIONS]
  • queue-name string required
    • The name of the queue to add the consumer to.
  • script-name string required
    • The name of the Workers script to add as a consumer of the named queue.

​​ consumer remove

Remove a consumer from a queue.


wrangler queues consumer remove <queue-name> <script-name>
  • queue-name string required
    • The name of the queue to remove the consumer from.
  • script-name string required
    • The name of the Workers script to remove as the consumer.

​​ login

Authorize Wrangler with your Cloudflare account using OAuth. Wrangler will attempt to automatically open your web browser to login with your Cloudflare account.

If you prefer to use API tokens for authentication, such as in headless or continuous integration environments, refer to Running Wrangler in CI/CD.


wrangler login [OPTIONS]
  • --scopes-list string optional
    • List all the available OAuth scopes with descriptions.
  • --scopes $SCOPES string optional
    • Allows to choose your set of OAuth scopes. The set of scopes must be entered in a whitespace-separated list, for example, $ wrangler login --scopes account:read user:read.

If Wrangler fails to open a browser, you can copy and paste the URL generated by wrangler login in your terminal into a browser and log in.

​​ Use wrangler login on a remote machine

If you are using Wrangler from a remote machine, but run the login flow from your local browser, you will receive the following error message after logging in:This site can't be reached.

To finish the login flow, run wrangler login and go through the login flow in the browser:


$ npx wrangler login
⛅️ wrangler 2.1.6
-------------------
Attempting to login via OAuth...
Opening a link in your default browser: https://dash.cloudflare.com/oauth2/auth?xyz...

The browser login flow will redirect you to a localhost URL on your machine.

Leave the login flow active. Open a second terminal session. In that second terminal session, use curl or an equivalent request library on the remote machine to fetch this localhost URL. Copy and paste the localhost URL that was generated during the wrangler login flow and run:


$ curl <LOCALHOST_URL>

​​ logout

Remove Wrangler’s authorization for accessing your account. This command will invalidate your current OAuth token.


wrangler logout

If you are using CLOUDFLARE_API_TOKEN instead of OAuth, and you can logout by deleting your API token in the Cloudflare dashboard:

  1. Log in to the Cloudflare dashboard.
  2. Go to My Profile > API Tokens.
  3. Select the three-dot menu on your Wrangler token.
  4. Select Delete.

​​ whoami

Retrieve your user information and test your authentication configuration.


wrangler whoami

​​ deployments

For more information about deployments and how they work, refer to Deployments.

​​ list

Retrieve details for the 10 most recent deployments. Details include Deployment ID, Created on, Author, Source, and an indication of which deployment is Active. Where applicable, details also include rollback information and a Message if one was provided on rollback.


wrangler deployments list [OPTIONS]
  • --name string optional
    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.

Example output:


Deployment ID: y565f193-a6b9-4c7f-91ae-4b4e6d98ftbf
Created on: 2022-11-11T15:49:08.117218Z
Source: Dashboard
Deployment ID: 91943f34-4802-4af7-a350-b5894c73ff34
Created on: 2022-11-11T15:50:08.117218Z
Source: Dashboard
Deployment ID: 31d8f2f0-fba3-4ce9-8427-933f42541b56
Created on: 2022-11-11T15:51:08.117218Z
Source: Rollback from Wrangler 🤠
Rollback from: y565f193-a6b9-4c7f-91ae-4b4e6d98ftbf
Message: This is a message submitted on rollback
Deployment ID: 7c2761da-5a45-4cb2-9448-a662978e3a59
Created on: 2022-11-11T15:52:08.117218Z
Source: Rollback from Dashboard 🖥️
Rollback from: 31d8f2f0-fba3-4ce9-8427-933f42541b56
Deployment ID: e81fe980-7622-6e1d-740b-1457de3e07e2
Created on: 2022-11-11T15:53:20.79936Z
Source: Wrangler
🟩 Active

​​ view

Retrieve details for the specified deployment, or the latest if no ID is provided. Details include Deployment ID, Author, Source, Created on, and bindings. Where applicable, details also include rollback information and a Message if one was provided on rollback.


wrangler deployments view [<DEPLOYMENT_ID>]
  • DEPLOYMENT_ID string optional
    • The ID of the deployment you wish to view.
  • --name string optional
    • Perform on a specific Worker rather than inheriting from wrangler.toml.

Example output:


Deployment ID: 07d7143d-0284-427e-ba22-2d5e6e91b479
Created on: 2023-03-02T21:05:15.622446Z
Source: Upload from Wrangler 🤠
------------------------------------------------------------
Author ID: e5a3ca86e08fb0940d3a05691310bb42
Usage Model: bundled
Handlers: fetch
Compatibility Date: 2022-10-03
--------------------------bindings--------------------------
[[r2_buckets]]
binding = "MY_BUCKET"
bucket_name = "testr2"
[[kv_namespaces]]
id = "79300c6d17eb4180a07270f450efe53f"
binding = "MY_KV"

​​ rollback

Rollback to a specified deployment by ID, or to the previous deployment if no ID is provided. The command will prompt you for confirmation of the rollback. On confirmation, you will be prompted to provide an optional message.

There are limitations on what deployments you can rollback to. Refer to Rollbacks in the Deployments documentation for more information.


wrangler rollback [<DEPLOYMENT_ID>] [OPTIONS]
  • DEPLOYMENT_ID string optional
    • The ID of the deployment you wish to view.
  • --message string optional
    • Add message for rollback. Accepts empty string. When specified, interactive prompts for rollback confirmation and message are skipped.

Example output:


🚧 `wrangler rollback` is a beta command. Please report any issues to https://github.com/cloudflare/workers-sdk/issues/new/choose
Successfully rolled back to deployment ID: e81fe980-7622-6e1d-740b-1457de3e07e2
Current Deployment ID: 04d22369-6e55-49ff-944a-d21e216d9f3e

​​ dispatch namespace

​​ list

List all dispatch namespaces.


wrangler dispatch-namespace list

​​ get

Get information about a dispatch namespace.


wrangler dispatch-namespace get <NAME>
  • NAME string required

    • The name of the dispatch namespace to get details about.

​​ create

Create a dispatch namespace.


wrangler dispatch-namespace create <NAME>
  • NAME string required

    • The name of the dispatch namespace to create.

​​ delete

Delete a dispatch namespace.


wrangler dispatch-namespace get <NAME>
  • NAME string required

    • The name of the dispatch namespace to delete.

​​ rename

Rename a dispatch namespace.


wrangler dispatch-namespace get <OLD_NAME> <NEW_NAME>
  • OLD_NAME string required

    • The previous name of the dispatch namespace.
  • NEW_NAME string required

    • The new name of the dispatch namespace.

​​ mtls-certificate

Manage client certificates used for mTLS connections in subrequests.

These certificates can be used in mtls_certificate bindings, which allow a Worker to present the certificate when establishing a connection with an origin that requires client authentication (mTLS).

​​ upload

Upload a client certificate.


wrangler mtls-certificate upload --cert <PATH> --key <PATH> [OPTIONS]
  • --cert string required
    • A path to the TLS certificate to upload. Certificate chains are supported.
  • --key string required
    • A path to the private key to upload.
  • --name string optional
    • The name assigned to the mTLS certificate at upload.

The following is an example of using the upload command to upload an mTLS certificate.


$ npx wrangler mtls-certificate upload --cert cert.pem --key key.pem --name my-origin-cert
Uploading mTLS Certificate my-origin-cert...
Success! Uploaded mTLS Certificate my-origin-cert
ID: 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d
Issuer: CN=my-secured-origin.com,OU=my-team,O=my-org,L=San Francisco,ST=California,C=US
Expires: 1/01/2025

You can then add this certificate as a binding in your wrangler.toml:


mtls_certificates = [
{ binding = "MY_CERT", certificate_id = "99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d" }
]

Note that the certificate and private keys must be in separate (typically .pem) files when uploading.

​​ list

List mTLS certificates associated with the current account ID.


wrangler mtls-certificate list

The following is an example of using the list command to upload an mTLS certificate.


$ npx wrangler mtls-certificate list
ID: 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d
Name: my-origin-cert
Issuer: CN=my-secured-origin.com,OU=my-team,O=my-org,L=San Francisco,ST=California,C=US
Created on: 1/01/2023
Expires: 1/01/2025
ID: c5d004d1-8312-402c-b8ed-6194328d5cbe
Issuer: CN=another-origin.com,OU=my-team,O=my-org,L=San Francisco,ST=California,C=US
Created on: 1/01/2023
Expires: 1/01/2025

​​ delete

Delete a client certificate.


wrangler mtls-certificate delete {--id <ID|--name <NAME>}
  • --id string
    • The ID of the mTLS certificate.
  • --name string
    • The name assigned to the mTLS certificate at upload.

The following is an example of using the delete command to delete an mTLS certificate.


$ npx wrangler mtls-certificate delete --id 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d
Are you sure you want to delete certificate 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d (my-origin-cert)? [y/n]
yes
Deleting certificate 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d...
Deleted certificate 99f5fef1-6cc1-46b8-bd79-44a0d5082b8d successfully

​​ types

Generate types from bindings and module rules in configuration.


wrangler types