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This document describes the difference between Wrangler 1 and 2, specifically deprecations and breaking changes.

Wrangler 2 introduces some new fields for configuration, while also deprecating some redundant fields.

​​ Common deprecations

Here are common fields that are no longer required.

  • type is no longer required. Wrangler will infer the correct project type automatically.
  • zone_id is no longer required. It can be deduced from the routes directly.
  • build.upload.format is no longer used. The format is now inferred automatically from the code.
  • build.upload.main and build.upload.dir are no longer required. Use the top level main field, which now serves as the entry-point for the Worker.
  • site.entry-point is no longer required. The entry point should be specified through the main field.
  • webpack_config and webpack properties are no longer supported. Refer to Ejecting Webpack. Here are the Wrangler 1 commands that are no longer supported:
  • wrangler preview - Use the wrangler dev command, for running your worker in your local environment.
  • wrangler generate - If you want to use a starter template, clone its GitHub repository and manually initialize it.
  • wrangler route - Routes are defined in the wrangler.toml configuration file.
  • wrangler report - If you find a bug please report it at Wrangler issues.
  • wrangler build - If you wish to access the output from bundling your Worker use wrangler publish --outdir=path/to/output.

​​ New fields

These are new fields that can be added to your wrangler.toml.

  • main: string, optional

    The main field is used to specify an entry point to the Worker. It may be in the established service worker format, or the newer, preferred modules format. An entry point is now explicitly required, and can be configured either via the main field, or passed directly as a command line, for example, wrangler dev index.js. This field replaces the legacy build.upload.main field (which only applied to modules format Workers).

  • rules: array, optional

    The rules field is an array of mappings between module types and file patterns. It instructs Wrangler to interpret specific files differently than JavaScript. For example, this is useful for reading text-like content as text files, or compiled WASM as ready to instantiate and execute. These rules can apply to Workers of both the established service worker format, and the newer modules format. This field replaces the legacy build.upload.rules field (which only applied to modules format Workers).

​​ Non-mandatory fields

A few configuration fields which were previously required, are now optional in particular situations. They can either be inferred, or added as an optimization. No fields are required anymore when starting with Wrangler 2, and you can gradually add configuration as the need arises.

  • name: string

    The name configuration field is now not required for wrangler dev, or any of the wrangler kv:* commands. Further, it can also be passed as a command line argument as --name <name>. It is still required for wrangler publish.

  • account_id: string

    The account_id field is not required for any of the commands. Any relevant commands will check if you are logged in, and if not, will prompt you to log in. Once logged in, it will use your account ID and will not prompt you again until your login session expires. If you have multiple account IDs, you will be presented with a list of accounts to choose from.

    You can still configure account_id in your wrangler.toml file, or as an environment variable CLOUDFLARE_ACCOUNT_ID; this will make startup faster, and bypass the list of choices if you have multiple IDs. The CLOUDFLARE_API_TOKEN environment variable is also useful for situations where it is not possible to login interactively - refer to Running in CI/CD.

  • workers_dev boolean, default: true when no routes are present

    The workers_dev field is used to indicate that the Worker should be published to a * subdomain. For example, for a Worker named my-worker and a previously configured * subdomain username, the Worker will get published to This field is not mandatory, and defaults to true when route or routes are not configured. When routes are present, it defaults to false. If you want to neither publish it to a * subdomain nor any routes, set workers_dev to false. This useful when you are publishing a Worker as a standalone service that can only be accessed from another Worker with (services).

​​ Deprecated fields (non-breaking)

A few configuration fields are deprecated, but their presence is not a breaking change yet. It is recommended to read the warning messages and follow the instructions to migrate to the new configuration. They will be removed and stop working in a future version.

  • zone_id: string, deprecated

    The zone_id field is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. It is now inferred from route/routes, and optionally from when using wrangler dev. This also makes it simpler to deploy a single Worker to multiple domains.

  • build.upload: object, deprecated

    The build.upload field is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Its usage results in a warning with suggestions on rewriting the configuration file to remove the warnings.

    • build.upload.main/build.upload.dir are replaced by the main fields and are applicable to both service worker format and modules format Workers.
    • build.upload.rules is replaced by the rules field and is applicable to both service worker format and modules format Workers.
    • build.upload.format is no longer specified and is automatically inferred by wrangler.

​​ Deprecated fields (breaking)

A few configuration fields are deprecated and will not work as expected anymore. It is recommended to read the error messages and follow the instructions to migrate to the new configuration.

  • site.entry-point: string, deprecated

    The site.entry-point configuration was used to specify an entry point for Workers with a [site] configuration. This has been replaced by the top-level main field.

  • type: rust | javascript | webpack, deprecated

    The type configuration was used to specify the type of Worker. It has since been made redundant and is now inferred from usage. If you were using type = "webpack" (and the optional webpack_config field), you should read the webpack migration guide to modify your project and use a custom build instead.

​​ Deprecated commands

The following commands are deprecated in Wrangler as of Wrangler 2.

​​ build

The wrangler build command is no longer available for building the Worker.

The equivalent functionality can be achieved by wrangler publish --dry-run --outdir=path/to/build.

​​ config

The wrangler config command is no longer available for authenticating via an API token.

Use wrangler login / wrangler logout to manage OAuth authentication, or provide an API token via the CLOUDFLARE_API_TOKEN environment variable.

​​ preview

The wrangler preview command is no longer available for creating a temporary preview instance of the Worker.

Try using wrangler dev to try out a worker during development.

​​ subdomain

The wrangler subdomain command is no longer available for creating a subdomain.

Create the subdomain on your Workers dashboard.

​​ generate

The wrangler generate command is no longer available to initialize a Worker from a template repository.

Initialize a basic Worker project via wrangler init, which provides a good starting point for most projects.

Alternatively, try cloning the template repository and initializing it manually.

​​ route

The wrangler route command is no longer available to configure a route for a Worker.

Routes are specified in the wrangler.toml configuration file.

​​ Other deprecated behaviour

  • Cloudflare dashboard-defined routes will not be added alongside Wrangler-defined routes. Wrangler-defined routes are the route or routes key in your wrangler.toml. If both are defined, only routes defined in wrangler.toml will be valid. To manage routes via the Cloudflare dashboard only, remove any route and routes keys from and add workers_dev = false to your wrangler.toml file.

  • Wrangler will no longer use index.js in the directory where wrangler dev is called as the entry point to a Worker. Use the main configuration field, or explicitly pass it as a command line argument, for example: wrangler dev index.js.

  • Wrangler will no longer assume that bare specifiers are file names if they are not represented as a path. For example, in a folder like so:

    ├── index.js
    └── some-dependency.js

    where the content of index.js is:

    import SomeDependency from "some-dependency.js";
    addEventListener("fetch", (event) => {
    // ...

    Wrangler 1 would resolve import SomeDependency from "some-dependency.js"; to the file some-dependency.js. This will also work in Wrangler 2, but will also log a deprecation warning. In the future, this will break with an error. Instead, you should rewrite the import to specifiy that it is a relative path, like so:

    - import SomeDependency from "some-dependency.js";
    + import SomeDependency from "./some-dependency.js";