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DNS Categories

Cloudflare Gateway’s DNS filtering capabilities allow you to block known and potential security risks on the public Internet, as well as specific categories of content. To give you more granular control over how to secure your network, Gateway also provides you with categorized security risks and content categories.

You can block security risks and content categories by creating DNS policies. Once you have configured your policies, you will be able to inspect network activity and the associated categories in your Gateway logs.

DNS Security Categories

CategoryDefinition
AnonymizerSites that allow users to surf the Internet anonymously.
Command and Control & BotnetSites that are queried by compromised devices to exfiltrate information or potentially infect other devices in a network.
CryptominingSites that mine cryptocurrency by taking over the user's computing resources.
DGA DomainsDomains detected as generated by algorithms seen in malware.
DNS TunnelingDomains with detected DNS tunneling activity.
MalwareSites hosting malicious content and other compromised websites.
New DomainsDomains that have been registered very recently.
Newly Seen DomainsDomains that have recently been resolved for the first time.
PhishingDomains that are known for stealing personal information.
Private IP AddressDomains that resolve to private IP Addresses.
SpamSites that are known for targeting users with unwanted sweepstakes, surveys, and advertisements.
SpywareSites that are known to distribute or contain code that displays unwanted advertisements or that gathers user information without the user’s knowledge.
UnreachableDomains that resolve to unreachable IP addresses.

DNS Content Categories

CategoryDefinition
Adult ThemesSites that are hosting content related to pornography, nudity, sexuality, and other adult themes.
Business & EconomySites that are related to business, economy, finance, education, science and technology.
Deceptive AdsSites that spoof clicks, impressions, conversions for ads.
DrugsSites related to the use and promotion of illegal drugs or illegal use of prescribed drugs.
EducationSites hosting educational content that are not included in other categories like Science, Technology or Educational institutions.
EntertainmentSites that are hosting entertaining content that are not included in other categories like Comic books, Audio streaming, Video streaming etc.
GamblingSites that are providing online gambling or are related to gambling.
Government & PoliticsSites related to government and politics.
HealthSites containing information about health and fitness.
Information TechnologySites related to information technology.
Internet CommunicationSites hosting applications that are used for communication like chat, mail etc.
Job Search & CareersSites that facilitate searching for jobs and careers.
Login ScreensSites hosting login screens that are not included in other categories.
MiscellaneousSites that are not included in the listed security and content categories.
No ContentSites that have no content.
Questionable ContentSites hosting content that are related to hacking, piracy, profanity and other questionable activities.
Real EstateSites related to real estate.
ReligionSites hosting content about religion, alternative religion, religious teachings, religious groups and spirituality.
Safe for KidsSites that are safe for kids to visit.
Security threatsSites that contain security threats like malware, phishing, cryptomininng and other security threats.
Shopping & AuctionsSites that are hosting content related to ecommerce, coupons, shopping, auctions and marketplaces.
Social & FamilySites related to society and lifestyle.
Society & LifestyleSites hosting information about lifestyle that are not included in other categories like fashion, food & drink etc.
SportsSites related to sports & recreation.
TechnologySites hosting information about technology that are not included in the science category.
TravelSites that contain information about listings, reservations, services for travel.
VehiclesSites related vehicles, automobiles, including news, reviews, and other hobbyist information.
ViolenceSites hosting and/or promoting violent content.
WeatherSites related to weather.

DNS Category and Subcategory IDs

Category IDCategory NameSubcategory IDSubcategory Name
1Ads66Advertisements
2Adult Themes67Adult Themes
2Adult Themes125Nudity
2Adult Themes133Pornography
3Business & Economy75Business
3Business & Economy89Economy & Finance
6Education90Education
6Education91Educational Institutions
6Education144Science
6Education150Space & Astronomy
7Entertainment70Arts
7Entertainment74Audio Streaming
7Entertainment76Cartoons & Anime
7Entertainment79Comic Books
7Entertainment92Entertainment
7Entertainment96Fine Art
7Entertainment100Gaming
7Entertainment106Home Video/DVD
7Entertainment107Humor
7Entertainment116Magazines
7Entertainment120Movies
7Entertainment121Music
7Entertainment122News & Media
7Entertainment127Paranormal
7Entertainment139Radio
7Entertainment156Television
7Entertainment164Video Streaming
8Gambling99Gambling
9Government & Politics101Government
9Government & Politics137Politics, Advocacy, and Government-Related
10Health103Health & Fitness
10Health146Sex Education
12Internet Communication77Chat
12Internet Communication98Forums
12Internet Communication108Information Security
12Internet Communication110Instant Messengers
12Internet Communication111Internet Phone & VOIP
12Internet Communication118Messaging
12Internet Communication126P2P
12Internet Communication129Personal Blogs
12Internet Communication168Webmail
12Internet Communication172Photo Sharing
13Job Search & Careers113Job Search & Careers
15Miscellaneous119Miscellaneous
15Miscellaneous141Redirect
17Questionable Content85Deceptive Ads
17Questionable Content87Drugs
17Questionable Content102Hacking
17Questionable Content135Profanity
17Questionable Content138Questionable Activities
17Questionable Content157Militancy, Hate & Extremism
17Questionable Content162Unreliable Information
18Real Estate140Real Estate
19Religion142Religion
20Safe for Kids143Safe for Kids
21Security threats68Anonymizer
21Security threats80Command and Control & Botnet
21Security threats83Cryptomining
21Security threats117Malware
21Security threats131Phishing
21Security threats134Private IP Address
21Security threats151Spam
21Security threats153Spyware
21Security threats175DNS Tunneling
21Security threats176Domain Generation Algorithm
21Security threats178Typosquatting & Impersonation
22Shopping & Auctions73Auctions & Marketplaces
22Shopping & Auctions82Coupons
22Shopping & Auctions88Ecommerce
22Shopping & Auctions148Shopping
24Society & Lifestyle65Abortion
24Society & Lifestyle71Arts & Crafts
24Society & Lifestyle72Astrology
24Society & Lifestyle78Clothing
24Society & Lifestyle84Dating & Relationships
24Society & Lifestyle86Digital Postcards
24Society & Lifestyle93Parenting
24Society & Lifestyle94Fashion
24Society & Lifestyle97Food & Drink
24Society & Lifestyle104Hobbies & Interests
24Society & Lifestyle105Home & Garden
24Society & Lifestyle112Jewelry
24Society & Lifestyle114Lifestyle
24Society & Lifestyle130Pets
24Society & Lifestyle132Photography
24Society & Lifestyle136Professional Networking
24Society & Lifestyle147Sexuality
24Society & Lifestyle149Social Networks
24Society & Lifestyle154Swimsuits
24Society & Lifestyle158Tobacco
24Society & Lifestyle171LGBTQ
24Society & Lifestyle173Body Art
24Society & Lifestyle174Lingerie & Bikini
25Sports152Sports
26Technology155Technology
26Technology95File Sharing
26Technology69APIs
26Technology81Content Servers
26Technology109Information Technology
26Technology123News, Portal & Search
26Technology145Search Engines
26Technology159Translator
27Travel160Travel
28Vehicles163Vehicles
29Violence165Violence
29Violence166Weapons
30Weather167Weather
31Blocked170Child Abuse
32Security Risks128Parked & For Sale Domains
32Security Risks169New Domains
32Security Risks177Newly Seen Domains
32Security Risks115Login Screens
32Security Risks124No Content
32Security Risks161Unreachable

Test a policy

If you are blocking a security threat or content category, you can test that the policy is working by using the test domain associated with each category.

Once you have configured your Gateway policy to block the category, the test domain will show a block page when you attempt to visit the domain in your browser, or will return REFUSED when you perform dig using the command-line interface.

Test domains

One-word categories

Test domains use the following format for categories with one-word names:

NAME_OF_CATEGORY.testcategory.com

CategoryTest domain
Malwaremalware.testcategory.com
Phishingphishing.testcategory.com
Cryptominingcryptomining.testcategory.com

Multi-word categories

If the category has multiple words in the name (e.g. Parked & For Sale Domains) then the test domain uses the following format:

  • Remove any spaces between the words
  • Replace & with and
  • All letters are lowercase
CategoryTest domain
Parked & For Sale Domainsparkedandforsaledomains.testcategory.com
Private IP Addressprivateipaddress.testcategory.com
Command and Control & Botnetcommandandcontrolandbotnet.testcategory.com

Common test domains

CategoryTest domain
Anonymizeranonymizer.testcategory.com
Command and Control & Botnetcommandandcontrolandbotnet.testcategory.com
Cryptominingcryptomining.testcategory.com
Malwaremalware.testcategory.com
New Domainsnewdomains.testcategory.com
Parked & For Sale Domainsparkedandforsaledomains.testcategory.com
Phishingphishing.testcategory.com
Private IP Addressprivateipaddress.testcategory.com
Spamspam.testcategory.com
Spywarespyware.testcategory.com
Unreachableunreachable.testcategory.com