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Durable Objects
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Durable Objects alarms allow you to schedule the Durable Object to be woken up at a time in the future.

When the alarm’s scheduled time comes, the alarm() handler will be called.

Alarms are modified using the Transactional Storage API. Alarm operations follow the same rules as other storage operations. Each Durable Object instance is able to schedule a single alarm at a time by calling setAlarm().

Alarms have guaranteed at-least-once execution and are retried automatically when the alarm() handler throws. Retries are performed using exponential backoff starting at a two second delay from the first failure with up to six retries allowed.

Alarms can be used to build distributed primitives, like queues or batching of work atop Durable Objects. Alarms also provide a mechanism to guarantee that operations within a Durable Object will complete without relying on incoming requests to keep the Durable Object alive. Refer to the Durable Objects alarms announcement blog post to learn more about alarms.

​​ alarm() handler method

The system calls the alarm() handler method when a scheduled alarm time is reached.

The alarm() handler has guaranteed at-least-once execution and will be retried upon failure using exponential backoff, starting at two second delays for up to six retries. Retries will be performed if the method fails with an uncaught exception. Calling deleteAlarm() inside the alarm() handler may prevent retries on a best-effort basis, but is not guaranteed.

The alarm() handler takes no parameters, does not return a result, and can be async.

​​ Use the alarm() handler method

In your Durable Object, the alarm() handler will be called when the alarm executes. Call from anywhere in your Durable Object, and pass in a time for the alarm to run at. Use to retrieve the currently set alarm time.

​​ Example alarm() handler method

This example implements an alarm() handler that wakes the Durable Object once every 10 seconds to batch requests to a single Durable Object. The alarm() handler will delay processing until there is enough work in the queue.

export default {
async fetch(request, env) {
let id = env.BATCHER.idFromName("foo");
return await env.BATCHER.get(id).fetch(request);
const SECONDS = 1000;
export class Batcher {
constructor(state, env) {
this.state = state; =;
this.state.blockConcurrencyWhile(async () => {
let vals = await{ reverse: true, limit: 1 });
this.count = vals.size == 0 ? 0 : parseInt(vals.keys().next().value);
async fetch(request) {
// If there is no alarm currently set, set one for 10 seconds from now
// Any further POSTs in the next 10 seconds will be part of this batch.
let currentAlarm = await;
if (currentAlarm == null) { + 10 * SECONDS);
// Add the request to the batch.
await, await request.text());
return new Response(JSON.stringify({ queued: this.count }), {
headers: {
"content-type": "application/json;charset=UTF-8",
async alarm() {
let vals = await;
await fetch("", {
method: "POST",
body: Array.from(vals.values()),
this.count = 0;

The alarm() handler will be called once every 10 seconds. If an unexpected error terminates the Durable Object, the alarm() handler will be re-instantiated on another machine. Following a short delay, the alarm() handler will run from the beginning on the other machine.