Cloudflare Docs
Durable Objects
Visit Durable Objects on GitHub
Set theme to dark (⇧+D)

Hibernatable WebSockets API


The Hibernatable WebSockets API allows a Durable Object that is not currently running an event handler (such as handling a WebSocket message, HTTP request, or alarms) to be removed from memory while keeping its WebSockets connected (“hibernation”).

Durable Objects WebSockets support includes:

  • Cloudflare-specific extensions to the standard WebSocket interface.
  • Related methods on the state of the Durable Object.
  • Handler methods that a Durable Object can implement for processing WebSocket events.

The Hibernatable WebSocket API enables you to terminate (not proxy) WebSocket connections within a Durable Object, and push messages to all connected clients based on state stored within the Transactional Storage API, HTTP fetches to external services, and/or data stored in R2 and Workers KV.

For WebSocket proxy use-cases, refer to the standard WebSocket API documentation.

If an event occurs for a hibernated Durable Object’s corresponding handler method, it will return to memory. This will call the Durable Object’s constructor, so it is best to minimize work in the constructor when using WebSocket hibernation.

​​ WebSocket extensions

  • WebSocket.serializeAttachment(valueany) : void

    • Keeps a copy of value in memory (not on disk) to survive hibernation. The value can be any type supported by the structured clone algorithm, which is true of most types.

    • If you modify value after calling this method, those changes will not be retained unless you call this method again. The serialized size of value is limited to 2,048 bytes, otherwise this method will throw an error. If you need larger values to survive hibernation, use the Transactional Storage API and pass the corresponding key to this method so it can be retrieved later.

  • WebSocket.deserializeAttachment() : any

    • Retrieves the most recent value passed to serializeAttachment, or null if none exists.

​​ state methods for WebSockets

  • state.acceptWebSocket(wsWebSocket, tagsArray<string>optional) : void

    • Adds a WebSocket to the set attached to this Durable Object. ws.accept() must not have been called separately. Once called, any incoming messages will be delivered by calling the Durable Object’s webSocketMessage() handler, and webSocketClose() will be invoked upon disconnect.

    • After calling ws.accept(), the WebSocket is accepted. Therefore, you can use its send() and close() methods to send messages. Its addEventListener() method will not ever receive any events as they will be delivered to the Durable Object.

    • tags are optional string tags used to look up the WebSocket with getWebSockets(). Each tag is limited to 256 characters, and each WebSocket is limited to 10 tags associated with it.

    • The Hibernatable WebSockets API permits a maximum of 32,768 WebSocket connections per Durable Object instance, but the CPU and memory usage of a given workload may further limit the practical number of simultaneous connections.

  • state.getWebSockets(tagstringoptional) : Array<WebSocket>

    • Gets an array of accepted WebSockets matching the given tag. Disconnected WebSockets 1 are automatically removed from the list. Calling getWebSockets() with no tag argument will return all WebSockets.

    • 1 getWebSockets() may still return websockets even after ws.close() has been called. For example, if your server-side WebSocket (the Durable Object) sends a close, but does not receive one back (and has not detected a disconnect from the client), then the connection is in the CLOSING “readyState”. The client might send more messages, so the WebSocket is technically not disconnected.

  • state.setWebSocketAutoResponse(webSocketRequestResponsePairWebSocketRequestResponsePairoptional): void

    • Sets an application level auto response that does not wake hibernated WebSockets.

    • state.setWebSocketAutoResponse receives WebSocketRequestResponsePair(requeststring, responsestring) as an argument, enabling any WebSocket that was accepted via state.acceptWebSocket() belonging to this Object to automatically reply with response when it receives the specified request.

    • setWebSocketAutoResponse() is preferable to setting up a server for static ping/pong messages because setWebSocketAutoResponse() handles application level ping/pongs without waking the WebSocket from hibernation, preventing unnecessary duration charges.

    • Both request and response are limited to 2,048 characters each.

    • If state.setWebSocketAutoResponse() is set without any argument, it will remove any previously set auto-response configuration. Setting state.setWebSocketAutoResponse() without any argument will stop a Durable Object from replying with response for a request. It will also stop updating the last timestamp of a request, but if there was any auto-response timestamp set, it will remain accessible with state.getWebSocketAutoResponseTimestamp().

  • state.getWebSocketAutoResponse() : Object | null

    • Gets the WebSocketRequestResponsePair(requeststring, responsestring) currently set, or null if there is none.

    • Each WebSocketRequestResponsePair(requeststring, responsestring) Object provides methods for getRequest() and getResponse().

  • state.getWebSocketAutoResponseTimestamp(wsWebSocket) : Date | null

    • Gets the most recent Date when the WebSocket received an auto-response request, or null if the given WebSocket never received an auto-response request.

​​ webSocketMessage() handler method

The system calls the webSocketMessage() method when an accepted WebSocket receives a message.

The method is not called for WebSocket control frames. The system will respond to an incoming WebSocket protocol ping automatically without interrupting hibernation. The method takes (ws: WebSocket, message: String | ArrayBuffer) as parameters. It does not return a result and can be async.

​​ webSocketClose() handler method

The system calls the webSocketClose() method when a WebSocket is closed. The method takes (ws: WebSocket, code: number, reason: string, wasClean: boolean) as parameters. wasClean() is true if the connection closed cleanly, false otherwise. The method does not return a result and can be async.

​​ webSocketError() handler method

The system calls the webSocketError() method for any non-disconnection related errors. The method takes (ws: WebSocket, error: any) as parameters. It does not return a result and can be async.