Skip to content
Visit Stream on GitHub
Set theme to dark (⇧+D)

Direct creator uploads

Direct creator uploads allow users to upload videos without API tokens. A common place to use Direct creator uploads is on web apps, client side applications, or on mobile apps where users upload content directly to Stream.

Generate a unique one-time upload URL

To give users the ability to directly upload their videos, first generate and provide them with a unique one-time upload URL with the following API request.

To make API requests you will need your Cloudflare API token and your Cloudflare account ID.

Upload constraints

There are several constraints you can enforce on your user's uploads through the body of the POST request:

  • maxDurationSeconds integer required

    • Enforces the maximum duration in seconds for a video the user uploads. For direct uploads, Stream requires videos are at least 1 second in length, and restricts to a maximum of 6 hours. Therefore, this field must be greater than 1 and less than 21,600.
  • expiry string (date) default: now + 6 hours

    • Optional string field that enforces the time after which the unique one-time upload URL is invalid. The time value must be formatted in RFC3339 layout and will be interpreted against UTC time zone. If an expiry is set, it must be no less than two minutes in the future, and not more than 6 hours in the future. If an expiry is not set, the upload URL will expire 30 minutes after it's creation.

Additionally, you can control security features through these fields:

  • requireSignedURLs boolean default: false

    • Limits the permission to view the video to only signed URLs.
  • allowedOrigins array of strings default: empty

    • Limit the domains this video can be embedded on. Learn more about allowed origins.
  • thumbnailTimestampPct float default: 0

    • Sets the timestamp location of thumbnail image to a percentage location of the video from 0 to 1.
  • watermark string default: none

    • uid of the watermark profile to be included in this video. Video uploaded by the link will be watermarks automatically.
  • meta json map default: none

    • Set the video's name along with any other additional arbitrary keys for metadata to be stored.

Using Basic Uploads

If the uploads from your creators are under 200MB, you can use basic uploads. For videos over 200 MB, use TUS uploads (described later in this article.)

The first step is to request a token by calling the direct_upload end point from your server:

curl -X POST \ -H 'Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN' \$ACCOUNT/stream/direct_upload \ --data '{    "maxDurationSeconds": 3600,    "expiry": "2020-04-06T02:20:00Z",    "requireSignedURLs": true,    "allowedOrigins": [""],    "thumbnailTimestampPct": 0.568427,    "watermark": {        "uid": "$watermark_uid"    } }'

Example responses

A successful response looks like:

{  "result": {    "uploadURL": "",    "uid": "f65014bc6ff5419ea86e7972a047ba22"  },  "success": true,  "errors": [],  "messages": []}

An unsuccessful response might look like:

{  "result": null,  "success": false,  "errors": [    {      "code": 10005,      "message": "Bad Request"    }  ],  "messages": [    {      "code": 10005,      "message": "required field maxDurationSeconds is missing"    }  ]}

The uploadURL provided in the result body of a successful request should be passed along to the end-user to make their upload request.

The uid references the reserved media object's unique identifier and can be kept as a reference to query our API.

Direct creator upload request from end users

Using the uploadURL provided in the previous request, users can upload video files. Uploads are limited to 200 MB in size.

curl -X POST \  -F file=@/Users/mickie/Downloads/example_video.mp4 \

A successful upload will receive a 200 response. If the upload does not meet the upload constraints defined at time of creation or is larger than 200 MB in size, the user will receive a 4xx response.


<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en">  <head></head>  <body>    <form id="form">      <input type="file" accept="video/*" id="video" />      <button type="submit">        Upload Video      </button>    </form>    <script>      async function getOneTimeUploadUrl() {        // The real implementation of this function should make an API call to your server        // where a unique one-time upload URL should be generated and returned to the browser.        // Here we will use a fake one that looks real but won't actually work.        return "";      }
      const form = document.getElementById("form");      const videoInput = document.getElementById("video");
      form.addEventListener("submit", async (e) => {        e.preventDefault();        const oneTimeUploadUrl = await getOneTimeUploadUrl();        const video = videoInput.files[0];        const formData = new FormData();        formData.append("file", video);        const uploadResult = await fetch(oneTimeUploadUrl, {          method: "POST",          body: formData,        });        form.innerHTML = "<h3>Upload successful!</h3>"      });    </script>  </body></html>

tus is a protocol that supports resumable uploads and works best for larger files.

Typically, tus uploads require the authentication information to be sent with every request. This is not ideal for direct creators uploads because it exposes your API key (or token) to the end user.

To get around this, you can request a one-time tokenized URL by making a POST request to the /stream?direct_user=true end point:

curl -H "Authorization: bearer $TOKEN" -X POST -H 'Tus-Resumable: 1.0.0' -H 'Upload-Length: $VIDEO_LENGTH' '$ACCOUNT/stream?direct_user=true'

The response will contain a Location header which provides the one-time URL the client can use to upload the video using tus.

Here is a demo Cloudflare Worker script which returns the one-time upload URL:

addEventListener('fetch', event => {  event.respondWith(handleRequest(event.request))})/** * Respond to the request * @param {Request} request */async function handleRequest(request) {  const init = {    method: 'POST',    headers: {      'Authorization': 'bearer $TOKEN',      'Tus-Resumable': '1.0.0',      'Upload-Length': request.headers.get('Upload-Length'),      'Upload-Metadata': request.headers.get('Upload-Metadata')    },  }  const response = await fetch("$ACCOUNT/stream?direct_user=true", init)  const results = await gatherResponse(response)  return new Response(null, {headers: {'Access-Control-Expose-Headers':'Location','Access-Control-Allow-Headers':'*','Access-Control-Allow-Origin':'*','location':results}})
async function gatherResponse(response) {  const { headers } = response  return await headers.get('location')

Once you have the tokenized URL, you can pass it to the tus client to begin the upload. For details on using a tus client, refer to the Resumable uploads with tus article.

To test your end point which returns the tokenized URL, visit the tus codepen demo and paste your end point URL in the "Upload endpoint" field.

Using the Upload-Metadata header

You can apply the same constraints as Direct Creator Upload via basic upload: requiresignedurls, expiry and maxDurationSeconds. To do so, you must pass the expiry and maxDurationSeconds as part of the Upload-Metadata request header as part of the first request (made by the Worker in the example above.) The Upload-Metadata values are ignored from subsequent requests that do the actual file upload.

Upload-Metadata header should contain key-value pairs. The keys are text and the values should be base64. Separate the key and values by a space, not an equal sign. To join multiple key-value pairs, include a comma with no additional spaces.

In the example below, the Upload-Metadata header is instructing Stream to only accept uploads with max video duration of 10 minutes and to make this video private:

'Upload-Metadata: maxDurationSeconds NjAw,requiresignedurls

NjAw is the base64 encoded value for "600" (or 10 minutes).

Tracking user upload progress

After the creation of a unique one-time upload URL, you may wish to retain the uid returned in the response to track the progress of a user's upload.

You can do that two ways:

  1. You can query the media API with the UID to understand it's status.

  2. You can create a webhook subscription to receive notifications regarding the status of videos. These notifications include the video's UID.