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Query D1 using Prisma ORM

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​​ What is Prisma ORM?

Prisma ORM is a next-generation JavaScript and TypeScript ORM that unlocks a new level of developer experience when working with databases thanks to its intuitive data model, automated migrations, type-safety and auto-completion.

To learn more about Prisma ORM, refer to the Prisma documentation.

​​ Query D1 from a Cloudflare Worker using Prisma ORM

This example shows you how to set up and deploy a Cloudflare Worker that is accessing a D1 database from scratch.

​​ Prerequisites

​​ 1. Create a Cloudflare Worker

Open your terminal, and run the following command to create a Cloudflare Worker using Cloudflare’s hello-world template:

$ npm create cloudflare@latest prisma-d1-example -- --type hello-world

In your terminal, you will be asked a series of questions related your project:

  1. Answer yes to using TypeScript.
  2. Answer yes to deploying your Worker.

Once you deploy your Worker, you should be able to preview your Worker at, which displays “Hello World” in the browser.

​​ 2. Initialize Prisma ORM

To set up Prisma ORM, go into your project directory, and install the Prisma CLI:

$ cd prisma-d1-example
$ npm install prisma --save-dev

Next, install the Prisma Client package and the driver adapter for D1:

$ npm install @prisma/client
$ npm install @prisma/adapter-d1

Finally, bootstrap the files required by Prisma ORM using the following command:

$ npx prisma init --datasource-provider sqlite

The command above:

  1. Creates a new directory called prisma that contains your Prisma schema file.
  2. Creates a .env file used to configure environment variables that will be read by the Prisma CLI.

In this tutorial, you will not need the .env file since the connection between Prisma ORM and D1 will happen through a binding. The next steps will instruct you through setting up this binding.

Since you will use the driver adapter feature which is currently in Preview, you need to explicitly enable it via the previewFeatures field on the generator block.

Open your schema.prisma file and adjust the generator block to reflect as follows:

generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
+ previewFeatures = ["driverAdapters"]

​​ 3. Create your D1 database

In this step, you will set up your D1 database. You can create a D1 database via the Cloudflare dashboard, or via wrangler. This tutorial will use the wrangler CLI.

Open your terminal and run the following command:

$ npx wrangler d1 create prisma-demo-db

You should receive the following output on your terminal:

✅ Successfully created DB 'prisma-demo-db' in region EEUR
Created your database using D1's new storage backend. The new storage backend is not yet recommended for production workloads, but backs up your data via
point-in-time restore.
binding = "DB" # i.e. available in your Worker on env.DB
database_name = "prisma-demo-db"
database_id = "__YOUR_D1_DATABASE_ID__"

You now have a D1 database in your Cloudflare account with a binding to your Cloudflare Worker.

Copy the last part of the command output and paste it into your wrangler.toml file. It should look similar to this:

name = "prisma-d1-example"
main = "src/index.ts"
compatibility_date = "2024-03-20"
compatibility_flags = ["nodejs_compat"]
binding = "DB" # i.e. available in your Worker on env.DB
database_name = "prisma-demo-db"
database_id = "__YOUR_D1_DATABASE_ID__"

__YOUR_D1_DATABASE_ID__ should be replaced with the database ID of your D1 instance. If you were not able to fetch this ID from the terminal output, you can also find it in the Cloudflare dashboard, or by running npx wrangler d1 info prisma-demo-db in your terminal.

Next, you will create a database table in the database to send queries to D1 using Prisma ORM.

​​ 4. Create a table in the database

Prisma Migrate does not support D1 yet, so you cannot follow the default migration workflows using prisma migrate dev or prisma db push.

However, D1 has a migration system, and the Prisma CLI provides tools that allow you to generate SQL statements for schema changes. In the following steps, you will use D1’s migration system and the Prisma CLI to create and run a migration against your database.

First, create a new migration using wrangler:

$ npx wrangler d1 migrations create prisma-demo-db create_user_table

Answer yes to creating a new folder called migrations.

The command has now created a new directory called migrations and an empty file called 0001_create_user_table.sql inside of it:

└── 0001_create_user_table.sql

Next, you need to add the SQL statement that will create a User table to that file.

Open the schema.prisma file and add the following User model to your schema:

model User {
id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
email String @unique
name String?

Now, run the following command in your terminal to generate the SQL statement that creates a User table equivalent to the User model above:

$ npx prisma migrate diff --from-empty --to-schema-datamodel ./prisma/schema.prisma --script > migrations/0001_create_user_table.sql

This stores a SQL statement to create a new User table in your migration file from before, here is what it looks like:

-- CreateTable
"email" TEXT NOT NULL,
"name" TEXT
-- CreateIndex
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "User_email_key" ON "User"("email");

UNIQUE INDEX on email was created because the User model in your Prisma schema is using the @unique attribute on its email field.

You now need to use the wrangler d1 migrations apply command to send this SQL statement to D1. This command accepts two options:

  • --local: Executes the statement against a local version of D1. This local version of D1 is a SQLite database file that will be located in the .wrangler/state directory of your project. Use this approach when you want to develop and test your Worker on your local machine. Refer to Local development to learn more.
  • --remote: Executes the statement against your remote version of D1. This version is used by your deployed Cloudflare Workers. Refer to Remote development to learn more.

In this tutorial, you will do local and remote development. You will test the Worker locally and deploy your Worker afterwards. Open your terminal, and run both commands:

# For the local database
$ npx wrangler d1 migrations apply prisma-demo-db --local
# For the remote database
$ npx wrangler d1 migrations apply prisma-demo-db --remote

Choose Yes both times when you are prompted to confirm that the migration should be applied.

Next, create some data that you can query once the Worker is running. This time, you will run the SQL statement without storing it in a file:

# For the local database
$ npx wrangler d1 execute prisma-demo-db --command "INSERT INTO \"User\" (\"email\", \"name\") VALUES
('[email protected]', 'Jane Doe (Local)');" --local
# For the remote database
$ npx wrangler d1 execute prisma-demo-db --command "INSERT INTO \"User\" (\"email\", \"name\") VALUES
('[email protected]', 'Jane Doe (Remote)');" --remote

​​ 5. Query your database from the Worker

To query your database from the Worker using Prisma ORM, you need to:

  1. Add DB to the Env interface.
  2. Instantiate PrismaClient using the PrismaD1 driver adapter.
  3. Send a query using Prisma Client and return the result.

Open src/index.ts and replace the entire content with the following:

import { PrismaClient } from '@prisma/client'
import { PrismaD1 } from '@prisma/adapter-d1'
export interface Env {
DB: D1Database
export default {
async fetch(request, env, ctx): Promise<Response> {
const adapter = new PrismaD1(env.DB)
const prisma = new PrismaClient({ adapter })
const users = await prisma.user.findMany()
const result = JSON.stringify(users)
return new Response(result);
} satisfies ExportedHandler<Env>;

Before running the Worker, generate Prisma Client with the following command:

$ npx prisma generate

​​ 6. Run the Worker locally

Now that you have the database query in place and Prisma Client generated, run the Worker locally:

$ npm run dev

Open your browser at http://localhost:8787 to check the result of the database query:

Browser output
[{"id":1,"email":"[email protected]","name":"Jane Doe (Local)"}]

​​ 7. Deploy the Worker

To deploy the Worker, run the following command:

$ npm run deploy

Access your Worker at Your browser should display the following data queried from your remote D1 database:

Browser output
[{"id":1,"email":"[email protected]","name":"Jane Doe (Remote)"}]

By finishing this tutorial, you have deployed a Cloudflare Worker using D1 as a database and querying it via Prisma ORM.