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JavaScript APIs

Cloudflare Queues is integrated with Cloudflare Workers. To send and receive messages, you must use a Worker.

A Worker that can send messages to a Queue is a producer Worker, while a Worker that can receive messages from a Queue is a consumer Worker. It is possible for the same Worker to be a producer and consumer, if desired.

In the future, we expect to support other APIs, such as HTTP endpoints to send or receive messages. To report bugs or request features, go to the Cloudflare Community Forums. To give feedback, go to the #queues-beta Discord channel.

​​ Producer

These APIs allow a producer Worker to send messages to a Queue.

An example of writing a single message to a Queue:

type Environment = {
readonly MY_QUEUE: Queue;
export default {
async fetch(req: Request, env: Environment): Promise<Response> {
await env.MY_QUEUE.send({
url: req.url,
method: req.method,
headers: Object.fromEntries(req.headers),
return new Response('Sent!');

The Queues API also supports writing multiple messages at once:

const sendResultsToQueue = async (results: Array<any>, env: Environment) => {
const batch: MessageSendRequest[] = => ({
body: JSON.stringify(value),
await env.queue.sendBatch(batch);

​​ Queue

A binding that allows a producer to send messages to a Queue.

interface Queue<Body = unknown> {
send(body: Body, options?: { contentType?: QueuesContentType }): Promise<void>;
sendBatch(messages: Iterable<MessageSendRequest<Body>>): Promise<void>;

​​ MessageSendRequest

A wrapper type used for sending message batches.

type MessageSendRequest<Body = unknown> = {
body: Body;
contentType?: QueuesContentType;
  • body unknown

  • contentTypeQueuesContentType

    • The explicit content type of a message so it can be previewed correctly with the List messages from the dashboard feature. Optional argument.
    • As of now, this option is for internal use. In the future, contentType will be used by alternative consumer types to explicitly mark messages as serialized so they can be consumed in the desired type.
    • See QueuesContentType for possible values.

​​ QueuesContentType

A union type containing valid message content types.

type QueuesContentType = "text" | "bytes" | "json" | "v8";

If you specify an invalid content type, or if your specified content type does not match the message content’s type, the send operation will fail with an error.

​​ Consumer

These APIs allow a consumer Worker to consume messages from a Queue.

To define a consumer Worker, add a queue() function to the default export of the Worker. This will allow it to receive messages from the Queue.

By default, all messages in the batch will be acknowledged as soon as all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The queue() function has returned.
  2. If the queue() function returned a promise, the promise has resolved.
  3. Any promises passed to waitUntil() have resolved.

If the queue() function throws, or the promise returned by it or any of the promises passed to waitUntil() were rejected, then the entire batch will be considered a failure and will be retried according to the consumer’s retry settings.

export default {
async queue(
batch: MessageBatch,
env: Environment,
ctx: ExecutionContext
): Promise<void> {
for (const message of batch.messages) {
console.log('Received', message);

The env and ctx fields are as documented in the Workers documentation.

Or alternatively, a queue consumer can be written using service worker syntax:

addEventListener('queue', (event) => {

In service worker syntax, event provides the same fields and methods as MessageBatch, as defined below, in addition to waitUntil().

​​ MessageBatch

A batch of messages that are sent to a consumer Worker.

interface MessageBatch<Body = unknown> {
readonly queue: string;
readonly messages: Message<Body>[];
ackAll(): void;
retryAll(): void;
  • queue string

    • The name of the Queue that belongs to this batch.
  • messages Message[]

    • An array of messages in the batch. Ordering of messages is best effort – not guaranteed to be exactly the same as the order in which they were published. If you are interested in guaranteed FIFO ordering, please email the Queues team.
  • ackAll() void

    • Marks every message as successfully delivered, regardless of whether your queue() consumer handler returns successfully or not.
  • retryAll() void

    • Marks every message to be retried in the next batch.

​​ Message

A message that is sent to a consumer Worker.

interface Message<Body = unknown> {
readonly id: string;
readonly timestamp: Date;
readonly body: Body;
ack(): void;
retry(): void;
  • id string

    • A unique, system-generated ID for the message.
  • timestamp Date

    • A timestamp when the message was sent.
  • body unknown

  • ack() void

    • Marks a message as successfully delivered, regardless of whether your queue() consumer handler returns successfully or not.
  • retry() void

    • Marks a message to be retried in the next batch.